Bio-cultural diversity conserved by indigenous peoples & local communities— examples & analysis

A close association is often found between a specific indigenous people or local community and a specific territory, area or body of natural resources.  Then such association is combined with effective local governance and conservation of biodiversity, we speak of “ICCAs”. More specifically, ICCAs are defined by the IUCN as “natural and/or modified ecosystems, containing significant biodiversity values, ecological benefits and cultural values, voluntarily conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities, both sedentary and mobile, through customary laws or other effective means”.