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Land rights in Mongolia
Major land governance problems faced in Mongolia:
WEAK LAND LEGISLATION
Land ownership certificates are relatively new in Mongolia, where private possession of land was introduced recently in 2003. Land disputes are frequent in the country and are mostly due to land rights granted in duplication by different government authorities. Although the current system of land related disputes resolution is relatively clear, equal access and fair treatment for all is not yet ensured. The land legislation is weak in protecting against land evictions and exclusions.
Unsustainable pastureland practices are widespread and lead to pastureland degradation due to animal pressures beyond vegetation recovery and an absence of seasonal rotations. The current common use regime encourages chaotic use of pastures in which a few wealthy herders, the city's rich and companies expand their grazing rights at the expense of other herders’ grazing rights. thus increasing social inequality. Moreover, it encourages improper practices of neglecting the interests of local herders in converting pastureland into other uses such as mining, infrastructure, tourism. The direct impact of pasture degradation can be seen in: declined forage supply, increased malnutrition and exposure to risks, decreased quality and productivity of animals leading to increased income and asset losses of herders.